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Type 1 Diabetes-What you should know


Basics about Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes can appear at any age, but usually is diagnosed in children and adolescents and it appears at two noticeable peaks. The first peak occurs in children between 4 and 7 years old, and the second is in children between 10 and 14 years old.

Type 1 diabetes causes the level of sugar in the blood to become high.

The body is not producing enough of a hormone called insulin.

Insulin helps the sugar to enter the cell and be used from the cell to produce energy. This hormone has to be replaced with injections or insulin pump in order to keep the blood sugar levels in the bloodstream under control. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can come quickly, the child will complain about feeling thirsty, peeing more than usual particularly at night, loosing weight and experiencing  extreme hunger, thrush that keeps coming back, blurred vision and cuts and grazes that aren’t healing.

Managing Type 1 Diabetes

The blood glucose (sugar) levels are affected by meals and exercise that’s why is important to check the blood sugar levels by testing.Checking the blood glucose levels it’s done with a glucose meter.

Best time to check the blood glucose levels is before meals,2 to 3 hours after meal, before, during and after exercise and before going to bed.This should help to have more stable blood glucose levels.

The blood sugar levels can be monitored continuously by wearing a blood sugar sensor placed under the skin. The sensor sends data to a transmitter which, in turn, sends it to receiver worn like a pager.The receiver displays blood glucose levels on a continuous basis.

If the blood sugar level is too low it can cause seizures and coma.High blood sugar level can  be dangerous and cause complications such as kidney damage and kidney failure and damage to the blood vessels of the retina potentially leading to blindness.

Type 1 Diabetes Treatment

To keep the blood sugar levels under control insulin has to be replaced with injections or insulin pump. The usual dose for children is 0.8 to 1 unit/kg/day. Injecting the insulin usually it is done with insulin pen. This pen has a small needle inside. Injecting insulin doesn’t usually hurt and the injection is done in the thighs, tummy or buttocks.

There is a specific diet for the patients with type 1 diabetes and everyday the calories should be calculated. Half of the calories 45-60 % should be carbohydrates,10-20% should be proteins and 25-35% lipids.


Type 1 Diabetes Care

The type 1 diabetes care is lead by pediatric endocrinologist, trained nurse, nutritionist and a social worker.

The family and the child work together with the special team to learn all the things they need to adjust to in order to have a better care for the child having this type of diagnose.

The diabetes care in kids then in adults is even more challenging because the kids grow, eat different kinds of food and in different amounts.

Regular appointments with the special care team  should be every 1 or 2 weeks at first and then every 3 months.