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解读肠道的小小心思

欧美国家有句俗语,“you are what you eat”,你吃的什么决定了你是怎样的人。其实不仅仅是你吃下去的东西,你的肠子对什么敏感、能吸收什么,也决定了你是怎样的人、有着怎样的生活质量。

肠道是人体里独一无二的重要器官——它组成了人体三分之二的免疫系统,除了为我们从食物中汲取能量外,甚至它本身还是一个巨大的分泌器官,动态调节着我们身体的免疫平衡。

人的肠道是一个复杂、动态的生态环境,包含了大量的微生物。人体的肠道中至少共生着1000种、数量高达10万亿的微生物,其数量与我们人体细胞总数相当,基因总数是人体基因组的100倍。人体肠道菌群中的微生物代谢活跃,被认为是人体后天获得的"第二基因组"。多样及复杂的肠道菌群,一定程度上表现了您的健康程度。研究发现,肥胖、胰岛素抵抗、炎症等情况都与肠道微生物多样性有着密切联系。

 

某些因素,如饮食的结构和习惯,或心血管类疾病(如动脉粥样硬化、高血压)II型糖尿病、结直肠癌、精神/神经类疾病(如自闭症、焦虑、抑郁、阿尔兹海默、帕金森)等疾病发生时,肠道的菌群就会发生相应的改变。

但盲目地为自己补充不适合自己的益生菌,你的免疫力可能会变得更糟!毕竟市场上益生菌的种类繁多,不同的菌种可能具有不同的生理功能,且每个人的肠道菌群也都是不一样的。

因此,通过对肠道菌群的检测,及时监控相关菌群的异常,能够提示疾病风险。配合针对性的干预和调理,改善肠道微生态,是预防相关疾病发生和缓解症状的有效途径。

一种新的检测技术因此被研发并推广。

它是采用从粪便样本中提取细菌总DNA,然后进行16S靶向扩增、高通量测序、物种注释及丰度分析,并将它们与现有的健康肠道菌群数据库进行比对,以此为依据描述受检者肠道微生态结构及多样性,尤其是肠道功能核心菌群的含量及构比,监测肠道中的益生菌、条件致病菌以及部分食源性致病菌,预测相关疾病的发生风险,同时为受检者提供具有个人针对性的健康管理建议。

 

测试内容主要包括以下几个部分:

肠道微生态指标综述:

评估肠道菌群多样性

肠道微生物比例组成

检测肠功能核心菌群

肠型的检测和指导(根据人类肠道菌群的结构和优势菌群进行种群分类)

 

肠道特异性细菌的测定:

检测食源性病原体

益生菌种类和含量的测定

条件致病菌种类和含量的测定


相关疾病风险分析:

炎症性肠病

焦虑/抑郁

动脉粥样硬化

高血压

II型糖尿病

结肠直肠癌

饮食和生活习惯的检测和干预:

肉食或素食倾向

膳食纤维摄入相关肠道菌群的检测及建议


特别说明的是,绝大部分疾病的发生和发展是复杂的,是生活习惯、遗传因素和环境因素等共同作用的结果。肠道菌群的疾病风险提示不能替代临床医学检测,如受检者确有某些疾病的特征或不适症状,建议及时就医,在临床医生的指导下接受进一步的检测和治疗。

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